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Part of the joy of painting in the 21st century is the range of art styles to choose from. The late 19th century and 20th century saw artists make huge leaps in painting styles, influenced by technology, such as the invention of the metal paint tube and photography, as well as world events. This list outlines major art styles from most realistic to least. Learning about different art styles, seeing what painters have created, and trying different approaches is all part of the journey of developing your own painting style.

Art Style: Photorealism
Photorealism, Super Realism, Sharp Focus Realism, Hyper Realism, you can call it whichever of these labels you prefer and argue about the minute details between the styles, but ultimately they're all art styles where the illusion of reality is created through paint so the result looks more like a large, sharply focused photo than anything else. Photorealism is a style which often seems more real than reality, with detail down to the last grain of sand and wrinkle on someone's face. Where nothing is left out, nothing is too insignificant or unimportant not to be included in the painting. Though it doesn't mean an artist painting in this style doesn't consider the arrangement of things to make a stronger composition.

Art Style: Realism
Realism is the art style most people regard as "real art", where the subject of the painting looks very much like it appears in real life. From a little distance everything looks "real" but up close you'll see it's an illusion created by skillful use of paint, of color and tone. The artist uses perspective to create an illusion of reality, setting the composition and lighting to make the most of the subject.
Mona Lisa Painting
~~Techniques of the Old Masters: Leonardo da Vinci and Rembrandt 
Art Style: Painterly
Painterly is an art style that is close to realism but celebrates more the use of paint, through evident brushwork and texture in the paint. It doesn't try to hide what was used to create the painting by smoothing out any texture or marks left in the paint by a brush.

Art Style: Impressionism
Impressionism is an art style that is still much loved today and it's hard to imagine that when it first appeared on the art scene in Paris in the 19th century, most critics hated and ridiculed it. What was then regarded as an unfinished and rough painting style, is now loved as being the impact of light on nature filtered through an artistic eye to show the rest of us just what can be seen if you know how to look properly.
~~Techniques of the Monet

Art Style: Expressionism / Fauvism
Expressionism and Fauvism are characterized by the artist not feeling compelled to use realistic colors or using perspective ~~Techniques to recreate an illusion of reality. Rather colors are selected to fit the emotion felt or to create emotional impact.
In the example of this art style shown, for instance, while we know no-one's face is truly green, nor does anyone have a line around their chin or for a nose, we still recognize it as a painting of a face. But instead of it focusing on being a likeness of someone, it's a painting that conveys a sense of mood and emotion foremost.
~~Techniques of the Masters: Vincent van Gogh  

Art Style: Abstraction
Abstraction is about painting the essence of a subject rather than the detail, but still retaining an echo of whatever it is that prompted the idea (unlike a pure abstract). You might reduce the subject to the dominant colors, shapes, or patterns. Think reduced reality the detail you need to paint the character of the scene.

Other Styles

Anti Art
Art Deco
Art Nouveau
Arts and Crafts
Beautiful Places
Body Art
Chinese Architecture
Chinese Painting
Chinese Paper Cutting
Chinese Porcelain
Color Field
Conceptual Art
Contemporary Art
De Stijl
Digital Art
Erotic Art
Face Painting Fantasy Art
Folk Art
Fractal Art
Graffiti Art
Great Books
Installation Art
Japanese Calligraphy
kinetic Art
Knot Gardens
Land Art
Landscape Art
Magical Realism
Medieval Art
Mixed Media
Modern Art
Nail Art
Neo Fauvism
Op Art
Opera Orientalism
Outsider Art
Performance Art
Pin Up Art
Pop Art
Portrait Art
Post Impressionism
Pre Raphaelites
Process Art
Psychedelic Art
Rock Art
Sound Art
Stained Glass
Still Life
Street Art Suprematism

Art Medium: Medium is the material used to create the piece of Art . most common Painting use on or more of the following .
Watercolor paint ~ Oil paint ~ Acrylic paint ~ Gouache ~ Oil Pastel ~Airbrush ~ Digital  ~ Caulk Pastel                                    
We'd be here all day to mention all of them, but here are a few More:
Pencil, Pen and ink, , Charcoal ,Clay ,Marble, Bronze ,Crayon, tempera,  Wood , Metallic Leaf, Papier Mache, Wax,, Scratchboard, Glitter, Yarn and even Pipe Cleaners. And lots lots lots lots lots lots lots lots more. Really, anything that can be manipulated can become an art medium. Art Can be created with sand, ice, grass clippings, tin foil, weed , resin, bars of soap, old rags, bacon, used tires, hair, toothpaste...

Sculpture's: Sculpture are human-made three-dimensional art objects. Sculptors can be carved , chiseled , stacked , Cast, molded or combined with many pieces to craft stunning Art works. Using BronzeFound objectMarbleTerracotta –with a host of other items , again anything that can be manipulated can become an art medium. Some types of Sculpture's are Architectural sculptureAssemblageBas reliefBustBustEarth artEnvironmental sculptureFigurineInstallation artKinetic sculptureMobileStatue.

Famous Artists-Top 70 Painters of All Time

Leonardo da Vinci 1452 - 1519
Michelangelo Buonarroti 1475 - 1564
Vincent van Gogh 1853 - 1890
Pablo Picasso 1881 - 1973
Salvador Dalí 1904 - 1989
Claude Monet 1840 - 1926
Francisco Goya 1746 - 1828
Raphael 1483 - 1520
Rembrandt 1606 - 1669
Caravaggio 1571 - 1610
Auguste Rodin 1840 - 1917
Gutzon Borglum 1867 - 1941
Andy Warhol 1928 - 1987
Frédéric Auguste Bartholdi 1834 - 1904
Johannes Vermeer 1632 - 1675
Pieter Bruegel the Elder 1525 - 1569
J. M. W. Turner 1775 - 1851
Sandro Botticelli 1446 - 1510
Marcel Duchamp 1887 - 1968
Diego Velázquez 1599 - 1660
Édouard Manet 1832 - 1883
Hokusai 1760 - 1849
Albrecht Dürer 1471 - 1528
Edvard Munch 1863 - 1944
Jackson Pollock 1912 - 1956
Gustav Klimt 1862 - 1918
Pierre-Auguste Renoir 1841 - 1919
René Magritte 1898 - 1967
Henri Matisse 1869 - 1954
M. C. Escher 1898 - 1972
Hieronymus Bosch 1450 -1516
Diego Rivera 1886 - 1957
Paul Cézanne 1839 - 1906
El Greco 1541 - 1614
Thomas Cole 1801 - 1848
Eugène Delacroix 1798 - 1863
Paul Gauguin 1848 - 1903
Roy Lichtenstein 1923 - 1997
Edward Hopper 1882 - 1967
William Blake 1757 - 1827
Edgar Degas 1834 - 1917
Grant Wood 1891 - 1942
Banksy Born 1974
Joe Rosenthal 1911 - 2006
Shepard Fairey 1970
Titian (Tiziano Vecellio) 1488 - 1576
Maya Lin Born 1959
Jeff Koons Born 1955
Gustave Courbet 1819 - 187
Andrew Wyeth 1917 - 2009
Georgia O'Keeff

Peter Paul Rubens
Marc Chagall
joan Miro
Albrecht Durer
Wassily Kandinsky
Jan Vermeer
Paul Klee
Janet Fish
LeRoy Neiman 1921-2012 
Norman Rockwell 1894-1978 
Donatello (1386-1466)
Amedeo Modigliani 1884-1920)
James Abbott McNeill Whistler 1871